The specific epithet edodes is the Latin word for "edible". There are a great number of variations between the extremes of free and decurrent, collectively called attached gills. It is also a muscimol mushroom. The polypores, shelf fungi, or bracket fungi (order Polyporales) have tubes under the cap as in the boletes, but they are not in an easily separable layer. [31][32], Mushrooms with psychoactive properties have long played a role in various native medicine traditions in cultures all around the world. By fresh weight, the common commercially grown mushroom is more than 90 percent water, less than 3 percent protein, less than 5 percent carbohydrate, less than 1 percent fat, and about 1 percent mineral salts and vitamins. In general, identification to genus can often be accomplished in the field using a local mushroom guide. Many novices have mistaken humid water marks on paper for white spore prints, or discolored paper from oozing liquids on lamella edges for colored spored prints. In German folklore and old fairy tales, toads are often depicted sitting on toadstool mushrooms and catching, with their tongues, the flies that are said to be drawn to the Fliegenpilz, a German name for the toadstool, meaning "flies' mushroom". The primordium enlarges into a roundish structure of interwoven hyphae roughly resembling an egg, called a "button". [12], The most important microscopic feature for identification of mushrooms is the spores. They have minimal or no vitamin C and sodium content. For example, chanterelles are in the Cantharellales, false chanterelles such as Gomphus are in the Gomphales, milk-cap mushrooms (Lactarius, Lactifluus) and russulas (Russula), as well as Lentinellus, are in the Russulales, while the tough, leathery genera Lentinus and Panus are among the Polyporales, but Neolentinus is in the Gloeophyllales, and the little pin-mushroom genus, Rickenella, along with similar genera, are in the Hymenochaetales. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In the Ascomycota, spores develop within microscopic elongated, sac-like cells called asci, which typically contain eight spores in each ascus. 10 Finer distinctions are often made to distinguish the types of attached gills: adnate gills, which adjoin squarely to the stalk; notched gills, which are notched where they join the top of the stalk; adnexed gills, which curve upward to meet the stalk, and so on. Turkey tail fungus (Trametes versicolor). Mushrooms are free of cholesterol and contain small amounts of essential amino acids and B vitamins. Chemical tests are also used for some genera.[7]. Toxicity likely plays a role in protecting the function of the basidiocarp: the mycelium has expended considerable energy and protoplasmic material to develop a structure to efficiently distribute its spores. Thus, the term is more one of common application to macroscopic fungal fruiting bodies than one having precise taxonomic meaning. A few species in the genus Amanita, most recognizably A. muscaria, but also A. pantherina, among others, contain the psychoactive compound muscimol. For use in food, see, "Toadstool" redirects here. Another group of ascomycetes includes the cup fungi, with a cuplike or dishlike fruiting structure, sometimes highly coloured. Most deaths attributed to mushroom poisoning result…, …psilocin, which come from Mexican mushrooms (notably. In the study, one third of the subjects reported ingestion of psychedelic mushrooms was the single most spiritually significant event of their lives. Mushrooms can be used for dyeing wool and other natural fibers. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the terms mushrom, mushrum, muscheron, mousheroms, mussheron, or musserouns were used.[2]. [39] In some countries, extracts of polysaccharide-K, schizophyllan, polysaccharide peptide, or lentinan are government-registered adjuvant cancer therapies,[40][41] even though clinical evidence of efficacy in humans has not been confirmed.[42]. Aside from maitake and Grifola frondosa, its scientific name, the mushroom is also referred to as sheep’s head, ram’s head, and hen-of-the-wood. - Acheter cette photo libre de droit et découvrir des images similaires sur Adobe Stock In 1901, Repin reported successfully obtaining fruit bodies in a cave in which cultures had been established in … Some mushrooms are used or studied as possible treatments for diseases, particularly their extracts, including polysaccharides, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Prepared by Allein Stanley and Sandy Sheine . Other groups of fungi, however, are considered to be mushrooms, at least by laymen. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The muscimol-containing chemotaxonomic group of Amanitas contains no amatoxins or phallotoxins, and as such are not hepatoxic, though if not properly cured will be non-lethally neurotoxic due to the presence of ibotenic acid. anybody got a good general family of mushroom name out there?? The term "mushroom" and its variations may have been derived from the French word mousseron in reference to moss (mousse). Due to the mushroom's prized fruit bodies, several attempts have been made to grow the fungus in culture. They have been used as sacrament in rituals aimed at mental and physical healing, and to facilitate visionary states. Maitake mushrooms begin growing in the late summer and continue until early autumn in the northeast United States. Armillariella tabescens is the scientific name for the Ringless Honey Mushroom. The ring may be skirt-like as in some species of Amanita, collar-like as in many species of Lepiota, or merely the faint remnants of a cortina (a partial veil composed of filaments resembling a spiderweb), which is typical of the genus Cortinarius. edible mushroom scientific name. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Other mushrooms, such as truffles, jellies, earthstars, and bird's nests, usually do not have stalks, and a specialized mycological vocabulary exists to describe their parts. Caesar's Mushroom . Popularly, the term mushroom is used to identify the edible sporophores; the term toadstool is often reserved for inedible or poisonous sporophores. They could be differentiated by colour of gills and base of mushroom. The single most spiritually significant event of their macroscopic structure edible fungi ( e.g., Morchella esculenta ) have. 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