The zonation of anaerobic methane-cycling Archaea in hydrothermal sediment of Guaymas Basin was studied by general primer pairs (mcrI, ME1/ME2, mcrIRD) targeting the alpha subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase gene ( mcrA ) and by new group-specific mcrA and 16S rRNA gene primer pairs. “They love it because they’re basically sitting in a Jacuzzi,” says Anna-Louise Reysenbach, a professor of biology at Portland State University and an author of the new study. He has found evidence of life in rock below the sea floor which might have provided the right environment for life to start. Hydrothermal vents play an important part in ocean circulation and regulating the chemistry of ocean waters. Sci. A thermophile is an organism—a type of extremophile—that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between 41 and 122 °C (106 and 252 °F). The cold seawater is heated by hot magma and reemerges to form the vents. Detoxification of sulfide through binding to blood-borne components is known in chemosynthetic vestimentiferans and vesicomyid clams and is particularly well characterized for the tube worm Riftia pachyptila ( 15 , 16 ). Although this helped solidify archaea’s claim, by this time most researchers had accepted that archaea, indeed, made up a third domain of life. Archaea appeared on the planet few billion years ago, hence the name "Archaea" ("ancient things" in Greek). Our investigations provide the first evidence that these paths of metabolism actually exist." Hydrothermal vents are believed to have emerged almost as soon as liquid water first collected on earth, with examples of fossilized black smokers and correlated evidence of fauna and microfossils at sites estimated to be as old as 3.5 billion years . A great diversity of extremophilic archaea and bacteria from various deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments has been isolated in pure cultures [].In addition, studies using cultivation-independent molecular ecology techniques have thoroughly dissected the phylogenetic diversity of uncultivated archaea and bacteria in deep-sea vents globally [5, 12, 13]. Acad. a. The base of the food chain in a hydrothermal ecosystem includes archaea and chemosynthetic bacteria, which in turn support other organisms such as shrimp, limpets, clams, and worms. As such, they are different from the other two domains that include Bacteria and Eukaryota. Hydrothermal vents are the result of seawater percolating down through fissures in the ocean crust in the vicinity of spreading centers or subduction zones (places on Earth where two tectonic plates move away or towards one another). Active deep‐sea hydrothermal vents are areas of intense mixing and severe thermal and chemical gradients, fostering a biotope rich in novel hyperthermophilic microorganisms and metabolic pathways. Like bacteria, however, archaea are prokaryotes that share certain characteristics with bacteria (this is one of the reasons archaea were previously thought to be a type of bacteria). Archaea definition is - usually single-celled, prokaryotic microorganisms of a domain (Archaea) that includes methanogens and those of harsh environments (such as acidic hot springs, hypersaline lakes, and deep-sea hydrothermal vents) which obtain energy from a variety of sources (such as carbon dioxide, acetate, ammonia, sulfur, or sunlight). In this study, we sought to determine the genetic diversity of archaea in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments such as effluent vent water and chimney structures. 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